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2014高考英语语法复习权威解析(4)  

2014-03-12 09:22:05|  分类: 【高考语法热点】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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第四章 主谓一致

主谓一致(Subject- Verb Agreement),指”人称”和”数方面的一致关系.如: He is going abroad. They are playing football. 可分为:语法一致, 内容一致, 就近一致.

(一)语法一致原则: 即主语为单数,谓语用单数,主语为复数,谓语也用复数. 以下为注意事项:

1. 单数主语即使后面带有with , along with, together with, like(象), but (除了),except, besides, as well as, no less than, rather than(而不是), including, in addition to 引导的短语, 谓语动词仍用单数.

如: Air as well as water is matter.    空气和水都是物质.

No one except two servants was late for the dinner.  除了两个仆人外, 没有一个人迟来用餐。

2. 用and连接的并列主语,如果主语是同一个人,同一事,同一概念, 谓语动词用单数, 否则用复数. 如:

The poet and writer has come.     那位诗人兼作家来了.(一个人)

A hammer and a saw are useful tools.   锤子和锯都是有用的工具. (两样物)

用and连接的成对名词习惯上被看成是一个整体, 如:bread and butter(黄油抹面包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

3. 不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. 如:

Serving the people is my great happiness.

为人民服务是我最大的幸福.

When we’ll go out for an outing has been decided.

我们什么时候出去郊游已决定了。

4. 用连接的并列主语被each, every 或no修饰时, 谓语动词用单数.

Every boy and every girl likes to go swimming.  每个男孩和每个女孩都喜欢去游泳.

No teacher and no student was absent from the meeting.  没有老师也没有学生开会缺席.

Each man and (each) woman is asked to help.  每个男人和每个女人都被请去帮忙。

5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动词用单数. 复数代词+each, 谓语动词用单数.如:

Each of us has something to say. 我们每个人都有话要说。

6. 若主语中有more than one 或many a/an , 尽管从意义上看是复数, 但它的谓语动词仍用单数。 但more+复数名词+than one做主语时, 谓语动词仍用复数. 如:

Many a boy likes playing basketball.     许多男生都喜欢打篮球.

More than one student was late.     不只一个学生迟到

More persons than one come to help us. 不止一个人来帮助我们。

7.  none 做主语时,谓语动词可用单数, 也可用复数; 但在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数,因而谓语动词要用单数. 如:

None of us are (is) perfect.   人无完人。

None of this worries me.   这事一点不使我着急。

8. 名词如: trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, glasses 等作主语时, 谓语动词必须用复数. 如:

His clothes are good. 但这些名词前若出现 a pair of , 谓语一般用单数.如:

A pair of glasses is on the desk. 桌上有一副眼镜。

9. 形复意单名词如:news ; 以ics 结尾的学科名称如: physics, mathematics, economics; 国名如: the United States; 报纸名如: the New Times; 书名如: Arabian Night <天方夜谈>; 以及The United Nations<联合国> 等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

10. “a +名词+and a half “, “one and a half + 名词”, “the number of + 名词” 等作主语时, 谓语动词要用单数. 如:

Only one and a half apples is left on the table.

注意: one or two + 复数名词作主语, 谓语动词用复数形式, 如:

One or two places have been visited. 参观了一两个地点。

(二)内容一致原则:

1.主语中有all, half, most, the rest等, 以及”分数或百分数+名词”做主语时,谓语动词单复数取决于连用的名词.如:

The rest of the bikes are on sale today.    剩下的自行车, 今天出售。

60%of the apple was eaten by little boy.   这个苹果的60%都被这个小男孩吃了。

Most of the apples were rotten.       大部分的苹果都是烂的。

Most of the apple was eaten by a rat.  这个苹果的大部分被老鼠吃了。

2. 不定数量的词组, 如:part of , a lot of , lots of , one of , a number of , plenty of等作主语时, 谓语动词的单复数取决于量词后面名词的数.如:

A part of the textbooks have arrived.  一小部分教科书已运到。

A part of the apple has been eaten up by the pig.  这个苹果的一部分被猪吃光了。

3. 加减乘除用单数.如:

Fifteen minus five is ten . 15减去5等于10。

4. 表示时间, 金钱, 距离, 度量等的名词做主语时, 尽管是复数形式, 它们做为一个单一的概念时, 其谓语动词用单数.如:

Ten miles is a good distance. 十英里是一个相当的距离。

5. (1) 通常作复数的集体名词. 包括police , people, cattle 等, 这些集体名词通常用作复数.如:

The British police have only very limited powers.

(2) 通常作不可数名词的集体名词. 包括equipment, furniture, clothing, luggage 等.

(3) 可作单数也可作复数的集体名词. 包括 audience, committee, government, family, enemy, group, party, team, public 等.如:

The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. 委员会决定解雇他。

6. the +形容词/过去分词形式”表示一类人或事物, 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数.如:

The injured were saved after the fire.

(三)就近原则

1. 由here, there, where 等引导的倒装句中, (有时主语不止一个时)谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致.如:

Here comes the bus 公共汽车来了.

Here is a pen and some pieces of paper for you.  给你一支钢笔和几张纸。

Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away?

你不在这儿的时候, 你爱人和孩子在哪儿呆呢?

2. 用连词or, either.... or, neither….nor, not only….but also 等连接的并列主语, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致。 如:

Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it 学生和老师都不知道这事.

He or you have taken my pen. 他或你拿了我的钢笔。

注意: one of +复数名词+who/that/which 引导的定语从句中, 定语从句的动词为复数。如:

Mary is one of those people who keep pets. 玛丽是饲养宠物者之一。

The only one of +复数名词+ who/that./which 引导的定语从句中,定语从句的动词应为单数。

Mary is the only one of those people who keeps pets. 玛丽是唯一一个饲养宠物的人。

主谓一致练习

1. About 60 percent of the students _____ from the south, the rest of them _____ from the north and foreign countries.

A. are/is   B. are/are  C. is/are   D. are

2. Half of the workers here _____ under 30 _____.

A. is/years      B. are/year old   C. is/years old   D. are/years of age

3. Now Tom with his classmates _____ football on the playground.

A. play     B. are playing  C. plays    D. is playing

4. The number of pages in this dictionary _____ about two thousand.

A. are      B. has    C. have     D. is

5. Thirty dollars _____ too expensive.

A. are      B. is     C. were     D. be

6. The audience _____ so large that no seat was left unoccupied in the great hall.

A. is     B. are      C. was     D. has

7. The secretary and principal _____ at the meeting now.

A. are speaking   B. is speaking    C. were making a speech  D. have a speech

8. "If anybody _____, please put down _____ name," said the teacher to the monitor.

A. wants to buy the book/his    B. want to buy the book/their

C. will buy the book/one's      D. wants to have the book bought/her

9. Nothing but one desk and six chairs _____ in the room.

A. are    B. is stayed     C. is      D. are left

10. Having arrived at the station, _____.

A. it was found that the train had left &nb, sp; B. th, e trai, n had left

C. the train was found left            D. he found that the train had left

11. Between the two roads _____ a TV tower called "Skyscraper Tower".

A. stands        B. standing     C. which stands   D. stand

12. Either of you _____ going there tonight.

A. will     B. was     C. is       D. are

13. You as well _____ right.

A. I are      B. I am     C. as I am    D. as I are

14. All but Dick _____ in Class Three this term.

A. are     B. is       C. were     D. was

15. —Shall I wait here for three hours?

—Yes. Three hours ___, __ t, , , , , o wait for such a doctor.

A. are not very long for you       B. is not long enough fo, , , , , r you

C. was not long enough for you    D. will be too long for you

16. Where to get the materials and how to get them _____ at the meeting.

A. have not discussed     B. have not been discussed

C. has not discussed      D. has not been discussed

17. I took mathematics and physics because I think that _____ very important for me to make further research in this field.

A. what is    B. they are     C. this       D. which are

18. Every student and every teacher _____.

A. are going to attend the meeting   B. have attended the meeting

C. has attended the meeting          D. is attended the meeting

19. Three fourths of the bread _____ by Bob, and the rest of the bread _____ left on the table.

A. was eaten/were    B. were eaten/was  C. were eaten/were   D. was eaten/was

20. This pair of shoes _____.

A. is her      B. is hers  C. are hers    D. are her

21.There ______ no life on the moon.

A. is said to have    B. are said to have   C. is said to be      D. are said to be

22.A group of ______ are eating ______ and ______ at the foot of the hill

A. sheep; grass; leaves      B. sheeps grasses leaves

C. sheep; grass  leaf       D. sheeps grass leafs

23.My family raise a lot of _______, including two______.

A. cattles cows   B. cows  cattle  C. cattle cows   D. cow, cattles

24.What he says and what he does_______.

A. does not agree    B. do not agree  C. does not agree with  D. not agree

25.The boy and the girl each ______ toys.

A. have their own  B. has their own  C. have her own  D. has her own

26.She is the only one among the ______ writers who ______stories for children.

A. woman, writes  B. women write  C. women writes   D. woman write

27.The railway station is ______from our school.

A. two hour`s drive     B. two hours` drive  C. two hour drive  D. two hours drive

28.Mike and John`s ______.

A. father is a teacher         B. fathers are teachers  

C. father are teachers         D. fathers are teacher

29.A great deal of talking and listening that ______ under casual circumstance may seem to be aimless.

A. is occurred     B. are occurred     C. occurs      D. occur

30._______ the classroom needs to be cleaned.

A. Either the offices or    B. The offices and    C. Both the office and     D. The office and

31.Three-fourths of the homework ______today.

A. has finished  B. has been finished  C. have finished  D. have been finished

32.More than 60 percent of the world’s radio programmes ______in England.

A. is       B. was      C. are       D. be

33. ______work has been done to improve the people`s living standard

A.A great deal of   B.A great many   C.A large number of   D.Many

34.The rest of the magazines ______ within half an hour.

A.is sold out   B.are sold out     C.was sold out   D.were sold out

35.There ______ a lot of sugar in the jar.

A. has    B.have     C.is     D.are

36. “All ______present and all ______going on well”, our monitor said.

A.is is       B.are, are     C.are is      D.is are

37.Yesterday the League secretary and monitor ______ asked to make a speech at the meeting.  

A.is     B.was     C.are      D.were.

38.Mary as well as her sisters ______ Chinese in China.

A.are studying   B.have studied   C.studies    D.study

39.The rich______ not always happy.

A.are     B.is     C.will      D.may

40. ______can be done ______done.

A.All, have been  B.All that ,have been    C.All has         D.All that ,has been

41.Either of the plans ______equally dangerous.

A.are    B.is  C.has   D.have

42.The police ______the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre.

A.is searching          B.were searching for  

C.are searching         D.was searching for

43.Your trousers ______dirty, you must have______ washed.

A.is it     B.are it     C.are them    D.is them

44.The Olympic games ______held every four ______.

A.is years    B.are years    C.is year     D.are year

45.He is the oly one of the students who______elected.

A.are     B.have     C.has      D.is

46. ______a good enough price for this book

A.Two yuans are  B.Two yuan are    C.Two yuans is     D.Two yuan is

47.No bird and no beast ______in the lonely island

A.are seen     B.is seen     C.see       D.sees

48.Every means ______prevent the water from______

A.are used to polluting       B. get used to polluting

C.is used to , polluted      D.is used to ,being polluted

49.Each of the ______in the ship.

A.passenger has his own room     B. passengers have their own room

C.passenger have their own room   D.sengers has his own room

50.What we need ______good textbooks.

A.is       B.are      C.have     D.has

51.What you said just now______to do with the matter we are discussing.

A.have something    B.has something   C.had something   D.was something

52.Either your parents or your elder brother ______to attend the meeting tomorrow.

A.is       B.are     C.are going     D.have

53.Neither of the novels which ______popular with us ______been translated into Chinese.

A.are has      B.are have     C.is have     D.is has

54.Every boy and every girl ______to attend the evening party.

A.wish      B.wishes     C.hope     D.are hoping

55._______ has been done.

A.nety—nine percents of the work       B. Half of what he promised

C. Two-fifths of the articles     D. Three quarter of the business

答案

1-5 BDDDB       6-10 ABACD   11-15 ACDAB    16-20 DBCDB

21-25 CACBA   26-30CBACA    31-35 CCADC   36-40CBCAD  

41-45 BBCBD      46-50 DBDDB      51-55 BAABB

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