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A loving heart is a joy forever





2007-08-20 11:53:37|  分类: 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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    (1)介词是虚词,不能单独作句子成分,必须与名词、代词(或相当于名词的其他词类、短语或从句等)构成介词短语,在句中充当一个成分。介词分为:简单介词,如at、in、for等;合成介词,如within、inside、onto、througout等;短语介词,如according to、out of、because of、by means of、in spite of、instead of等。双重介词,如from behind / above / under、until after等。分词介词,如considering、including、judging(from / by) 等。


①It is going to rain this afternoon according to the weather forecast.

②He quarrelled with her yesterday.

③He succeeded in passing the final exam.

④I'm still thinking of how I can fulfil the task ahead of time.

⑤The professor will give us a talk on how to study English well.


 ①This machine is in good condition.(表语)

 ②Where is the key to my bike?(定语)

 ③Nothing in the world could live without air or water.(状语)

 ④She always thinks herself above others.(宾补)



①rob sb. of sth. / clear the road of snow("夺去、除去"意义的动词与of 连用)

②supply us with food / fill the glass with wine("供给"意义的动词与with连用)③make a desk of wood / make bread from flour / make the material into a coat("制作、制造"意义与of、from、into连用)

④介词 + the + 部位与动词的关系(=动词 + sb.'s + 部位,可换用)

strike him on the head("击,拍,碰,摸"意义与on连用)

catch him by the arm("抓,拉,拿,扯"意义与by连用)

hit the boy in the face("肚,胸,眼,脸"等人体前部与in连用)

⑤prevent(stop, keep)sb. from doing sth.("阻止,禁止"意义与from连用)

⑥persuade(advise, warn)sb. into doing sth.("说服,建议"意义与into连用)

⑦buy sb. for sth.(leave、get、win、gain、lose等"得失"意义与for连用)

⑧tell sb.(show、teach、sing、write、read等"告知"意义与to连用)

⑨give sth. to sb.(give、allow、promise、pass、hand等"授予"意义与to连用)注意:⑦⑧⑨可换成buy sb.sth.双宾结构。

⑩say to sb.(suggest、explain、apologize、murmur、whisper与"对象"连用必须用to)不可说suggest sb.sth.。


       for(寻找)         to sth.           of(听说)              on(拜访)

 look to (眺望)     agree with sb.    hear                call  for(需要)

       at(看)             on sth.           from(收到信)       i n(请)


 reply to the letter回信,sing(dance)to the music和......唱(跳),amount to 达到,加起来有......,devote to把......贡献给,drink to为......干杯,object to反对,look forward to 渴望,come to苏醒,belong to属于,search for搜......,ask ... for ... 寻找,use ... for用作,leave for前往,take ... for误以为,call of倡导,wait for等待,care for喜欢,make up for弥补损失,turn to求助(救)于,help oneself to随意,agree to同意,compare ... to把......比作,send for派人去请(拿)......,sail for驶向,航向,set out for动身去,go in for爱好......。

(2)常见"形容词 + 介词"搭配。

         of担心......                               about / at sth.       

    afraid                                    angry

         for 替......而担心                        with sb.

                 for sth.渴望......          different from与......不同 


             about sth. / sb担心......  different to ... 不关心......

         of讨厌                                with sb.

  tired                                strict

        from/ with因......疲倦            in sth.要求严格

       at擅长                                  with sb.受......欢迎

good  for对......有益            popular  in some place流行在......

       of sb. to do so友好                  for ... 因......而流行

         with + 名词或what从句   

  pleased                                      helpful to对......有帮助

         at + 抽象名词(听 / 看到......而高兴)

             to sb.为人所知            

  known  for因......而出名               be familiar with熟悉

            as作为......出名                be familiar to为......熟知(悉)

  sorry for ... 替......后悔            disappointed at sth.失望


  rich in富有......               absent


  worthy of值得的, glad about sth. for sb.为某人某事高兴,far from离......远,grateful for sth. to sb.为某事感激某人,free from没有......(免除......),proud of(take pride in)自豪,satisfied with (by)满意,sure of / about确信,fond of喜欢,fit for适合,busy with sth.(in doing sth.)忙着干某事,full of充满,ready for准备,similar to相似,wrong with不对;有毛病......

(3)"名词 + 介词"要注意习惯搭配和意义区分。

 the absence of water缺水 the hope of success成功的希望

have a chance of (for) entering college上大学的机会

take pride in them为他们感到骄傲  the key to the question问题的答案

a medicine for cough治咳嗽的药   the ticket for tomorrow明天的票

         in Beijing去了北京                to study学习方法

his abesence                            the way

           from Beijing不在北京        of studying maths学习教学的方法




如:in the 1990s, in the year, in January, in(the) winter / summer / fall / spring, in the first week of May。

 还可以用时段名词组成固定短语或词组。如:in a while, in no time, in the daytime, in a short while, in time, in the morning (afternoon, evening)。但要注意:①at night / at noon, in the day(在白天),in the night(大夜间)。

     ②in five days(weeks, months, years)中in意思是"在......以后"。

  ③in和during表一段时间内两词可互用。如:in the night, during the night, in the war, during the war。但略有区别:当接表示"活动"的抽象名词时多用during,接"活动"的动名词及短语时用in。如:

  during the discussion          in discussing the problem

  during her stay in Hubei       in playing basketball

  during the course of           in digging the tunnel


on Sunday(s).on Tuesday morning on Christmas Day(但at Chrismas),on Christmas Eve, on Children's Day  on March 8, on the mornin(afternoon, evening)of Oct.1  early on the morning of Oct.1(区别:in the late / early morning of Oct.1)   on a rainy night, on warm winter days


at breakfast(supper, lunch),at six at noon (sunrise, sunset, midday, night, midnight, dawn) at the age of 15, at the time of war,但in time of danger/ trouble。注意:有些时间名词前不接介词。如:

next day、last Sunday、that morning、these years one、each、any、every、some、all修饰时,一般不用介词, 如some day  one day、yesterday / afternoon,the night before



He waited for me till twelve o'clock.

He didn't get up till(until) 10 a.m.(不可用to).


Not until 9 a.m.did Mr.Smith come back to school.


义。如:from July to September, from six to(till)eight(从......到......为止),但from morning till night(从早到晚),不能用to。from ... to常构成习惯搭配,不可换用其他介词。(A)表持久连续、传递、转移的含义。from time to time(不时,有时),from day to day (天天),from hand to hand(不断传下去),from place to place(处处,到处),from side to side(左右摇摆),from door to door(家家户户),from house to house(挨家挨户),from shop to shop(一个商店接一个商店)。(B)表起始终止的全过程或程度加深、状态变化。from beginning to end(从头到尾,自始至终)(from the beginning to the end of...);from hand to mouth(仅能糊口),from bad to worse(越来越糟),from head to foot(从头到脚), from top to bottom(整个地,彻底地),from top to toe(全身),from start to finish(自始至终,从头到尾)。(C)from one + 名词 + to another表示"依次"。如from one car to another(顺着车厢依次地)。(D)名词 + by + 同一单数名词,表示"一个一个地",要与from ... to短语区别开:one by one 一个一个地;little by little(bit)一点一点地;step by step 一步一步地,逐渐地(但by and by 不久以后);sentence by sentence逐句地;day by day一天一天地;side by side(with...)(和......)并肩,一起;shoulder to shoulder肩并肩地,齐心协力;hand in hand 手拉手,紧紧地;face to face面对面。


 ①in + 一段时间:表示说话时为起点一段时间之后,与一般将来时连用;但表示"在......之内"时,用于各种时态。

 ②一段时间 + later(later是副词):表示某一具体时间或某一方面具体时间算起的一段时间后。

 ③after + 一段时间表示:"在......之后",用于一般过去时;但时间为点时间时,只能用after,即after + 点时间,用于各种时态。

 The doctor will be with us in six minutes.

 She graduated in 1981,and eight years later she became the manager of the factory.

 He received her letter after four weeks.

 另外,in + 一段时间 + 's + time 与 within + 一段时间的用法如下:

 in a week's time = in a week

 They will arrive in three days' time.(与将来时连用)

 My brother's birthday is in two weeks' time.(作表语)

 I'll finish the book within two weeks.(within = in less than...用于各种时态,不超出,在......之内)


①at 在较小的场所,in在较大的场所,on在......的平面上。如at the

door、at the airport、at the station、at 55 Park Street、in China、in the north、in Asia、on the desk、on the wall等。


Japan lies to the east of China.(范围之外)

Taiwan lies in the southeast of China.(范围之内)

Hunan province lies on the west of Hubei province.(毗邻)

The island lies off the coast of China.(相隔一定距离)

 ③地点介词的引申、比喻意义:in the sun在阳光下,in the dark(ness)在黑暗中,in the dark不知道,in freezing weather在严寒天气中,in the mud在泥中,in the earth在地下,in the desert在沙漠中,in a heavy rain 在大雨中,in the snow / wind在雪/风中,in public 当众,in trouble 在困境中,get into trouble陷入困境,out of trouble摆脱困难,beyond hope绝望。


 They walked across the playground.I walked through the forest.

 ⑤over / under / above / below。


A little boat is now under the bridge.  

There is a bridge over the river.

The sun sinks below the horizon(地平线)

The window is well above the tree.


  He walked to the station(静态,表示方向和目的地)

  He walked towards the station.(动态,只表示方向)

      He is kind to (towards)us.(两者通用)

  He is at the station.(静态,表示地点)

  They arrived at the station.(动态,表示地点)

  He swam away from the ship.(动态"离开")

  He stood away from the shop.(静态"远离")

  He fell onto the floor.(动态"到地面")

  The city is on the Changjiang River.(静态"平面")

  Go off the road.偏离了道路(动态"离去")

  Come along the river.沿着河过来(线)

  across the fields 跨过田野......,over the desert跨越沙漠

  across the river横跨这条河......,over the hill翻过这座山

  be in the house(静态,在这里......)stay out of the car(静态,在......外)

  go into the house(动态,进入)fly out of the country(动态,离开)


  ①by the year/hour/day按年/小时/天。如He rent a house by the year(day,hour).(按by+the+单位名称)但to the pound按磅算,to the ton按吨计。②表泛指的方式、手段

  by post/mail邮寄,by telephone(radio),但on the phone/on the radio/on TV(电讯器材),by electricity用电,by machinery用电器,by hard work,learn heart,through the satellite,through practice,through his own efforts,through experience,through the telescop


 by bus/train/car/taxi(road)   by bike/bicycle,on horse back/on foot

 by plane/jet/spaceship,by air  by ship/boat/lifeboat,by sea/by water

 另外:by means of 用......方法, by way of 经由,取道于,用......方法,

with the help (permission)of sb./with sb.'s help (permission)。


  He beat the dog with a whip.(with+工具机器)

  One smells with his nose.(with+人体器官,但by hand"手工,用手")

  He stood up with pride.(with+情绪、情感、态度的名词)

  注意:使用语言、材料、文字等用in。如in English(ink,pencil)。另外如:in high (good,low)spirits,in anger,in joy,in comfort,in sorrow,in safety,in danger,in need,in debt,in love,in fun,in pain,in tears,in surprise,in good(poor)health,in good order,in flower,in a way,in a low voice,in silence,in(with)satisfaction,in(with)words,live/feedonfood,take(catch) surprise(出其不意)


 ①besides 除......以外,(还有)。作副词时意思是"而且,更何况"。

 Well all went to the cinema besides Shaw.除了肖外,我们都去了电影院。

 It was too late to see a film, and besides, I was tired.


 We all went except John.我们都去了,约翰没有。


  He has no other hats except / besides this one.

  ③except for除了......(对句子主题进行细节校正或附加说明)后接名词、代词或what从句,此时与except that + 句子意思相同。

  He was very clever except for carelessness.

  ④except that ... 除了......一点以外。

  He has not changed except that he is wearing dark glasses.




  All but one are here.

  Nobody but I likes making model ships.


  He has nothing to do but wait.(前有do,后省to)


  have no choice but to do sth.只得做某事,can not but do sth.不得不,can not help but do sth.不得不......,but for ... 如不是......



 Ann is between Tom and Bill.

 Switzer land lies between France, Germany, Australia and Italy.

 They soon finished the work between themselves.(共同,合作)

 She was busy between cooking, washing, sewing and looking after the baby.(表示接连不断地,一个接一个地忙这忙那)

  A horse can be seen between trees now.


  The story is said to have happened in a village among the hills.

  He was happy to be among friends again.

  We must agree among ourselves.(一起,共同)我们必须达成共识。

  London is among the largest cities.( = one of与最高级连用)

  (10)表原因的介词for、because of、due to。

  He didn't come to the meeting because of his illness.

  The reason for his coming late is that he was ill.

  He was praised for his bravery and courage.

  The accident is due to your careless driving.

 (补充: because of ,due to , owing to , on account of 和 thanks to 的用法比较


1.because of意为"由于,因为",强调因果关系,在句中仅作状语,修饰句中的一部分,与其他成分不用逗号隔开。如:We must not get discouraged because of such a minor setback. 我们决不可因为这样一个小小的挫折而灰心丧气。

2.owing to与because of一样,也强调因果关系,除作状语外,也可作表语。作状语时修饰整个句子,可在句首或句末,用逗号隔开。如:

They decided to cancel the flight,owing to the storm.


His death was owing to an accident.他死于一场事故。

3.due to引出造成后果的原因,在句中作表语、状语和定语。作表语和状语时与owing to同义,作状语时,一般不与其他成分隔开。如:

This accident was due to(owing to)his careless driving.


He arrived late due to(owing to)the storm.由于暴风雨他来晚了。

Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious consequences.


4.on account of与because of,owing to同义,但语气较为正式。可作状语、表语,不作定语。如:

He could not come on account of his illness.他因病不能前来。

That was on account of lack of exercise.那是由于缺乏锻炼。

5.thanks to表示"幸亏,多亏"多用于表达正面意思,相当于感谢,在句中作状语和表语。如: Thanks to your advice,much trouble was saved. 多亏你的建议,减少了许多麻烦。)


  这里所说的不定式复合结构形式指的是for 或of加上人或事,作动词不定式逻辑主语的结构。①It is clever of you to answer it like that. ②It is quite hard for me to explain why.



 ①after、since、till / still、before这些词既是介词,又是连词。

  The children went home at once after school.

  They went to bed after they had finished the job.

  ②in、on、along、down、up、after、before、along、beyond等介词可兼作副词。 He ran down the hill.(介词)

  Can you lift that box down from the shelf for me ?(副词)


  All the students got to school before me.(before为介词)

  We do want to buy something now before prices go up.(连词)

  Haven't I seen you before?(before为副词)


  ①表示时间的介词on、at 、in的省略。在next、last、yesterday、tomorrow、each、one、any、every、all等词之前,可以省略,也可以不省略。如(at)last weekend、(on)that day等。

  ②介词for表示时间的省略要求。(A)以all开头的名词短语,for要省略。如:I stayed with her all he morning.(B)表示一段时间的短语之前,for可以省略,也可以不省略。如:I have been waiting hereI (for) more than three hours.(C)否定句中,表示时间的短语前的for不能省略。如:I haven't seen you for thirty years.(D)时间状语在主句之前,for不能省略。如:For the whole morning,the old man kept reading.


  Nothing can prevent me(from)doing the job.

  She spent nearly two hours(in)translating it.



②要求接in 的名词有:interest、satisfaction、expert等。

  He is expert in teaching small children.


①both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor

 both ... and"双方都",连接句子的两个主语时,其后谓语动词通常用使用复数形式。either ... or与neither ... nor注意采取"就近原则"。 

②not only ... but also, as well as

  注意:两者强调对象不同,not only ... but also强调的是but also之后部分,而as well as则强调其前面的部分。not only ... but also采取"就近原则",而as well as只是一个插入语,采取"就远原则"。如:

Mr.Smith, as well as his wife and children, has come to Nanjing for a visit. not only ... but also结构中的not only可用于句首,连接两个分句时,第一个从句主谓要倒装。 Not only is he clever ,but also he is hard working.



  When I go to the station, the train had already left.

  He sang merrily as he was working.

  ②till、until均表示"到......时候止",肯定句中的谓语必须是延续性动作。如:I worked till late at night.若主句谓语是终止性动词,则主句要用否定形式,意为动作"到......才......"开始发生。如:

  She didn't get up until her mother came in.



  Thouth (Although)he was tired,he kept on working.

  注意:though、although引导的从句不能与but、however连用,但可以与yet、still连用。though还可以与别的词结合使用,如even though、

as though,而although则不能这样搭配。

  ④no sooner ... than、hardly ... when、as soon as三者都表示"一......就","刚刚......就"的意思。(A)as soon as 置于主句前后都可以,而且有备各种时态。如:As soon as she gets here I'll tell  her about

it. Mary left as soon as the finished the work.(B)hardly ... when、no sooner ... than不能表示将来的事,其主句的谓语动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时。若将hardly或no sooner放在句首,句子要倒装。如:No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.

⑤某些表示时间的名词(词组)也可用作从属连词。它们是:the moment, the minute,the instant, the day, the time, the first(second, third ...)time, the spring (summer, autumn,winter),every(each,next,any) time(day),by the time,都可引导时间状语从句。如:

His mother died the spring he returned. Call me up the minute hearrives.



 1. The home improvements have taken what little there is _______my spare time.(NMET  2001)

  A.from             C.of

  解析:答案为C。本题考查句子结构中介词of的有法。what引导的从句作谓语have taken的宾语,而从句中的基本句型为"there is little of ...",表示"......有很少",what 修饰little提到了从句句首。注意正确把握句子结构和介词用法,要明白of my spare time和in my spare time的区别。

  2. __________ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.(NMET  2000)

  A.As             B.For          C.With         D.Through

  解析:答案为C。本题考查with的复合结构作状语的用法。"with + 名词 + 不定式/分词/名词/形容词/介词短语等"可在句中作伴随、时间、原因、条件等状语。本题中with的复合结构作伴随状语。

  3. The changes in the city will cost quite a lot, __________they will save us money in the long run.(2000春季高考题)

  A.or              B.since         C.for          D.but


  4. After she considered the problem, she got a tall box to stand ________.

A.on              B.up           C.above

  解析:答案为A。不定式"to stand + 介词"作定语修饰a tall box,其中被修饰词在逻辑意义上是不及物动词,只有加上吊尾介词,句子意思才完整。吊尾介词往往由于受到汉语的影响而缺少,吊尾介词使用的场合有:

1)定语从句中,先行词被一个不及物动词所修饰,不及物动词后要接介词,先行词被"动词 + 介词"组成的短语动词所修饰,介词常在句尾。

  He is the man I just spoke to.


  I can't imagine what it is like.

  (3) 强调句型,特殊疑问句中由于被强调部分和疑问词位置变更,常出现吊尾介词。

  It was the poor boy that we gave the books to.

  What for? Where to? Who with?


  a room to live in, a bench to sit on

  There is nothing to worry about.

  She is a good girl to work with.

  (5)某些形容词后接不定式或"动词 + 介词"型短语,动词的不定式形式表"反射",常用吊尾介词。


  ②The river is good to swim in.

   The box is too heavy to carry.

  ③be worth doing sth.,be worthy of being done / to be done, want/

require / need doing

  5.Roses need special care ________     they can live through winter.

  A. because        B. so that       C. even if      D. as


  6.      ______ you call me to say you're not coming, I'll see you at the theatre.

  A. Though         B. Whether     C. Until       D. Unless


  7.Several weeks had gone by ______   I realized the painting was missing.

  A. as       B. before        C. since        D. when

  解析:答案为B。本题考查连词的用法。时间had passed(gone)by before S + did...在不知不觉中过......(已过去了)。


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